- How police officers went from being at-will employees to having meaningful job protections. • Civil service systems, police discipline boards, and arbitration of discipline.
- The 12 requirements for just cause for discipline, including progressive discipline, consideration of mitigating circumstances, the implications of training, and proportionality of punishment.
- The requirements for a thorough investigation and timely processing of complaints, and where and how more unusual disciplinary penalties such as demotion and transfer can be used.
- The increase in challenges to the binding nature of arbitration decisions.